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Knowledge and use of medicinal and edible mushrooms of the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico.
- M. Quiñónez Martínez
- M. Olivas Sanchez
- J. Valero Galván
- R. Gonzalez Fernandez
- E. Rico Escobar
- A. Corral Avitia
- I. Enriquez Anchondo
Chihuahua is the largest state in Mexico. It takes 12.6% of the country’s area. The southwestern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental in this state also known as Sierra Tarahumara named as it is occupied by an ethnic group known as the Raramuri or Tarahumara, which means “light footed people”. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. There is a great diversity in edible and medicinal mushrooms all-around of the Chihuahua state counties. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting, using and eating them during the “rainy season.” However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible and medicinal mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in Bocoyna and Urique municipalities of Chihuahua, Mexico. In the forests of the Sierra, there are records of around 450 species of fungi; 50 of them with edible importance at nationwide and apparently only 16 fungi species of those 50 are being consumed by the inhabitants of the municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique with Amanita caesarea complex being the most preferred by mestizos and Raramuris. We observed no apparent differences in the population studied in terms of gender, occupation, or language, regarding the recognition and consumption of species; however, this is not conclusive and so it is important to continue with a greater number of such studies to check whether this knowledge and use is differential. Forty eight percent of the people surveyed reported to collect mushrooms directly from the field or forest areas while the others buy them either from the Raramuris who sell them on the side roads, or at their home as a result of door to door to selling. Seven percent mentioned the “Fungus Fair,” which is carried out every year in the month of August provides them with a good opportunity to buy mushrooms and reassures them they are edible. Three percent mentioned that besides selling them, they teach other people how to handle mushrooms in the place known as The Valley of the Mushrooms. As medicinal mushrooms, three species are used for the purpose of healing wounds of the skin, and to remove pimples in the face: Calvatia, Lycoperdon and Astraeus hygrometricus.
Edible mushrooms in Mizoram, India: Occurrence and perception in the region
- J. Zothanzama
- L. Hmar
- J. Vabeikhokhei
- Z. Zohmangaiha
- B. Held
- R. Blanchette
Mizoram is regarded as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. A diverse group of flora and fauna have been documented. Knowledge on the edible mushrooms is very limited in the region. Moreover, the local knowledge and perception on the edible species of the region is very low. Knowledge of edible mushrooms among the Mizo people has been there for a long time. However, it has been perceived that the number of edible species known by the people is very few. A study of the occurrence of the edible mushrooms growing in Mizoram was undertaken. From the study a total of 32 species of edible mushrooms was identified from different districts of Mizoram. Study on the local knowledge and perception on the edible mushrooms was also undertaken from different sections of the local communities. It is found that a small percentage of edible species are presently known to be edible by the Mizos despite the existence of other edible species and distribution in the region.
Determining seasonality and local abundance of edible mushrooms in Puerto Rico using social media as a tool
- K. Miller
- Y. Rivera-Torres
AbstractThe knowledge of edible mushrooms in Puerto Rico is limited at least in part due to cultural attitudes, which could be largely characterized as locally “mycophobic”. For the past three years, I collected information on the mushrooms that are found in the island, especially edible species in the genera Cantharellus, Calvatia, Lentinula, and Laetiporus. These genera are easy to identify based on macromorphological traits and therefore lend themselves well to analyzing photos uploaded by users of a Facebook group dedicated to local mushrooms. These data are supplemented by observations from mushroomobserver.org, as well as inventories on cybertruffle.org. The data are therefore a blend, ranging from local residents’ photos to established scientific inventories with a total of 150 observations between the four genera. The goal is to answer questions of seasonality, location and abundance of local edible mushrooms, the harvesting of which is of potentially significant commercial interest. The downfall to this “crowdsourced” data is, of course, demographics, as much of the population lives in the Northeast. It is therefore to be expected that a disproportionate number of observations will come from this region. Puerto Rico is divided into 78 municipalities, which is noted, along with the date and ID, for each observation. For each species of edible mushroom, the data are displayed showing where on the island and during which months a species is most likely encountered. The data shows that Cantharellus coccolobae occur mainly in coastal beaches, associated with Coccoloba uvifera, but they were also observed growing in karstic areas on the north coast of the island, in the presence of other Coccoloba species, such as C. diversifolia. Although C. coccolobae occurred year-round, they were especially abundant during the “rainy season” (April-November), a pattern repeated for all species treated here. Calvatia cyathiformis is the only recorded Calvatia species on the island. Its distribution is cosmopolitan within Puerto Rico, but the records show that it prefers grassy pastures and it has adapted well to the metropolitan area and its abundance of maintained lawns. Lentinula boryana, or Florida shiitake, proves exceedingly rare or at least is not well documented. This is most likely due to its occurrence in inland municipalities with late successional tropical forests, such as El Yunque; habitat which is not common on the island, and is at once sparsely populated and difficult to traverse, and more observations are needed for this species to determine its seasonality. Laetiporus caribaea is observed in similar habitats as Lentinula boryana, but are more frequently documented, which could be due to their striking orange-red fruiting bodies.
The knowledge of future teachers of science and biology in basic education about the fungi
- S. Xavier-Santos
- A. Persijn
Although mycology integrates a component of great relevance in basic education, being present in different moments of the national curricular guidelines or the reference curriculum of the states, recent studies show that this content has been neglected in the courses of teacher training for that level of education, in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge about fungi among the final students of the Biological Sciences Degree courses in the state of Goiás, Brazil. We sampled 10 of the 32 courses existing in the state, so that the sample universe totaled 123 students, belonging to the last period of these courses. The data collection was done from a semi-structured questionnaire applied to the participants. The analysis of the data shows that most of the future teachers have less knowledge than they should have, lacking in depth, with conceptual inaccuracies, presenting difficulty in developing critical and logical reasoning in formulating answers, besides they showing an anthropocentric view, in which fungi are at the service of the human species, with little attention to their interactions and their ecological role. The best performance was observed among students from courses that offer specific discipline for Mycology content. These frailties are incompatible with an efficient scientific training. Since the quality of the teaching in basic education is intrinsically linked to the quality of the training of the teachers who work in it, the courses in Biological Sciences require special attention in regard to the approach to this subject, in order to promote the consolidation of mycological knowledge among the educators they make available to society.
Cultivation of Polyporus squamosus on substrates from residues of wood processing industries in Finland
- M. Cortina Escribano
- P. Veteli
- R. Linnakoski
- V. Möttonen
- H. Vanhanen
Demand for non-meat protein sources has grown extensively in Finland as well as in rest of Europe. In Finland wood processing industries produces vast amounts of residues, which could be suitable for production of edible mushrooms thus increasing the local protein production as well as harboring circular economy. Our aim in this study was to test cultivation of Polyporus squamosus on substrates from wood processing industries, and evaluate the feasibility of cultivation. Populus tremula and Betula pendula sawdust and chips were used as substrates. Two strains of P. squamosus originating from Finland were used in this study. The substrate bags of 1 kg dry weight were filled as follows: 1) 40% of wood sawdust and 60% of wood chips in the case of P. tremula species 2) B. pendula substrate bags were filled with 100% wood chips 3) Used coffee and rye bran were tested as nutritional additives, 20% of the total substrate bag weight for both nutrients and wood chips from the two species. A total of ten replicates per each substrate formula were inoculated with 150 ml of two strains of P. squamosus barley spawn. When the substrate bags were completely colonized, they were kept at 26°C with a relative humidity of 80% to support fruiting body formation. The biological efficiency was calculated considering the kilograms of fresh fruit body per kilogram of dry substrate. First flush was first observed one month after inoculation, suggesting that crops can be obtained within 2 months. The substrate formula that was found to be the most suitable for fruit body formation was the one containing 20% of rye addition in both B. pendula and P. tremula wood residues. Differences between mycelium growth rates were observed between the fungal strains, emphasizing the importance for strain selection most suitable for commercial cultivation in future. Our results suggest that B. pendula and P. tremula wood residues serve as equally suitable substrates which can be utilized for the cultivation of P. squamosus.
Pleurotus pulmonarius production optimized on oil palm bunch
- N. Chinwendu
This study was conducted to study the yield and some macro-morphological characters of Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit bodies cultivated on Hydrochloric acid (HCl) optimized oil palm bunch (OPB) substrate. Concentrated HCl was diluted in tap water at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and were used to induce changes on the initial pH (9.5) of OPB to 8.9, 8.2, 7.9, 6.2 and control (9.1) respectively; after soaking for 48hrs. One way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Correlation test were adopted for data analysis. Mean separation was also done by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at probability level of 5%. Results showed that 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% HCl treated OPB substrates produced P. pulmonarius primordia after 9, 9, 10, 11 and control (12days) respectively. Results further revealed that 0.4% HCl treated OPB substrate induced the highest (900g/kg) fruit body yield and Biological Efficiency (90%) while control (493g/kg and B.E 49.3%) respectively, produced the lowest quantity of fruit bodies. Some macro-morphological characters of harvested fruit bodies revealed that mean cap size (C.Scm) and Weight (wt.g/kg) of fruit bodies were highest (3.83cm and 3.5g/kg) in 0.4% HCl treated OPB respectively. Mean Stipe Length (S.Lcm) was highest (2.77cm) in 0.3% OPB substrate and was significant at p ≤ 0.05. S.L and C.S of fruit bodies as well as C.S and Wt. were significantly correlated while there was no correlation between S.L and Wt. of fruit bodies. HCl was found as a suitable acid buffer for the optimization of the pH of the highly alkaline OPB for cultivation of P. pulmonarius fruit bodies. Oil palm bunch should therefore be adopted in the commercial production of the Oyster mushroom if certified safe for human consumption.
Utilization of Amazonian waste wood for the production of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus strigosus in the Amazon
- F. Pessoa
- C. Sales-Campos
- L. Rolim
Found in the Amazon, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus strigosus are not widely cultivated. Like other edible mushrooms, the use of these fungi to convert regional waste is of little cost and is recommended. They are able to grow in the wood waste of Simaboura amara (marupá) and Anacardium gigantium (cajuí), supplemented with a mixture of bran: 75% rice (Oryza spp.), 20% wheat (Triticum spp.) and 5% corn (Zea mays). The following formulation was made for the two substrate of wood waste: sawdust (68%), mixture of bran (30%) and calcium carbonate (2%), the same being homogenized and humidified to 75%. All material was kept in a growth chamber in the dark at a constant temperature of 25°C and humidity of 80% until full establishment. Then, a photoperiod of eight hours created the stimulating condition for the production of the mushroom. The following were main areas of evaluation: biological efficiency (BE,%), yield (g kg-1) and organic matter loss (OML%). The results showed that the formulation made with cajuí obtained better results with EB at 221.17% (P. ostreatus) and 104.88% (L. strigosus); Yield: an average of 220.23g kg-1 (P. ostreatus) and an average of 72.5g kg-1 (L. strigosus); OML was not significantly different for the two types of substrates used. The cultivation of P. ostreatus and L. strigosus reveals that this is a promising raw material due to its great local availability at low to no cost. In addition, production of the mushroom reduces pollution of the environment.
DNA-based identification of consumer-relevant mushrooms: A partial solution for product certification?
- H. Raja
- T. Baker
- J. Little
- N. Oberlies
Attributing the correct scientific name to dietary ingredients made from fungal materials remains a challenge, in part due to difficulties in species authentication by chemical means and the nature of fungal taxonomic names, which are undergoing numerous taxonomic revisions with the application of molecular methods. This can be particularly difficult for samples that contain fungal mycelia, where morphological characteristics do not present sufficient variation to differentiate species. This challenge is compounded by the fact that many of those materials maybe heavily processed, including drying, milling, and even extraction, prior to analysis. However, monitoring the safety and quality of such products is a requirement for the protection of consumer health. The main goal of the study, which was performed as a collaboration of academic researchers (University of North Carolina at Greensboro) and industry scientists (Procter & Gamble), was to demonstrate that Sanger sequencing of the ITS region is an appropriate means for verification of species identities. We generated ITS barcodes for 33 representative fungi, which are being used by consumers for food and dietary supplement purposes. After generating ITS barcodes utilizing standard procedures accepted by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, we tested the utility of the ITS by performing a BLAST search against NCBI GenBank. In some cases, we also downloaded published, homologous sequences of the ITS region of fungi inspected in this study and examined the phylogenetic relationships of barcoded fungal species in light of modern taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. In the majority of cases, we were able to sequence the ITS region from powdered mycelium samples, grocery store mushrooms, and capsules from commercial dietary supplements. Results demonstrated that the ITS region was able to identify the mushrooms used in the present study to species-level. We anticipate that these data will motivate a discussion on DNA based species identification, particularly as it applies to the verification/certification of fungal containing products.
Characteristics of a new cultivar Grifola frondosa "Daebak" with bottle cultivation
- L. Yunhae
- J. Dae-Hoon
- C. Jong-In
- G. Hee-Min
- H. Hye-Jeong
- J. Kab-Yeul
We aim to introduce a new cultivar of Grifola frondosa by crossing of mono-spore. The name of this cultivar is ‘Daebak’, it means jackpot. As in the case of control cultivar ‘Cham’, temperature of mycelial growth and fruiting of the ‘Daebak’ were also same at 25℃ and 18℃, respectively. The incubation period was 57days, two days shorter than that of the ‘Cham’ by bottle cultivation. The rate of fruiting for the ‘Daebak’ was 98.4%, which was 24.8%p higher than that of the 'Cham'. In addition, the coefficient of variation for the ‘Daebak’ was 0.6, which was lower than the ‘Cham’ 5.3, resulting uniform fruiting. The L-value of pileus for the ‘Daebak’ was lower than that of the ‘Cham’. The diameter of pileus and length of stem for the ‘Daebak’ were larger and higher than those of the ‘Cham’, respectively. Physical properties (strength, springness, and brittleness) of this cultivar were lower than those of the 'Cham'. The fresh weight of this cultivar was 139g/1,100㎖ and was 28% higher than that of the ‘Cham’. Additionally the new cultivar has greater uniformity due to the coefficient of variation in the quantity being lower than the ‘Cham’. Shelf life of this cultivar at 4 ℃ was 42 days and 6 days longer than that of the 'Cham'. In conclusion, new cultivar ‘Daebak’ of Grifola frondosa was in quantity, quality and storage compared to the previous cultivar ‘Cham’, but also need to be bred with a more physically strong cultivar for the future.
Analysis of nutritional and neutraceutical properties of selected wild-grown mushrooms of Nepal.
- J. Upadhyaya
Mushrooms are the fleshy spore-bearing fruiting bodies of fungi. Wild mushrooms are source of many different nutraceuticals such as unsatured fatty acids, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and alkaloids and nutrients such as proteins, fats, ash, fiber, moisture and carbohydrates. Nepal possesses diverse phytogeographical zones related to altitude and other factors, and rich in wild mushrooms. The information and knowledge about nutritional and nutraceutical values of wild mushrooms is limited and poor. Therefore, the present study is undertaken to document the use of wild edible mushrooms and analyze their nutritive values. Herein, it was reported and compared the nutritional value and neutraceutical values of the wild mushroom species; Laetiporus sulphureus, Polypore sp., Trametes elegans , Trichaptum biforme, Lenzites betulina, Stereum complicatum, Trametes versicolor, Trichaptum subchartaceum, and Ganoderma Lucidium. The nutritional and nutraceutical properties analyzed according Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and spectrophotometrically respectively. These mushrooms (samples) were rich in proteins (6.8- 60.23%) and fibers were range from 0.174 - 36.38% and contained fat range from 3.642- 14.6%. The carbohydrate contents ranged from 7.058 to 59% (on the basis of dry weight). Similarly; ash content and moisture content ranges from 10- 19% and10-16% respectively. The protein content was highest in Ganoderma Lucidium. (G. lucidium) and lowest in Trametes elegans (T. elegans). The fat content was highest in L. sulphureu and lowest in G. lucidium. . The analysis revealed that the total phenolic contents ranged from 3.95 to 10.05 mg ml-1. Similarly, the total flavonoid contents ranged from 2.149 to 11.36 mg ml-1. The result indicated the high levels of antioxidants activity thus making mushrooms suitable to be used as functional foods or nutraceutical sources. Therefore, this study provides new information regarding chemical properties of wild mushrooms, which is very important for the biodiversity characterization.
Productivity of edible Amanita at Phusing Agricultural Development Center, Sisaket, Thailand
- U. Pinruan
- S. Somrithipol
- S. Sommai
- P. Khamsuntorn
- T. Boonpratuang
- S. Takhiankling
- K. Nissa
The cultivation of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms associated with forest trees is becoming popular in Thailand. It is currently applied to reforestation projects by forestry officials, and in agroforestry situations by farmers. However, information on the mushroom productivity and sustainability is unavailable. This study investigated and reports on the yield of edible Amanita and other wild edible mushrooms in a 1280m2 plot at Phusing Agriculture Extension Center, Sisaket Province between 2014 and 2016. The plot was on an area mainly covered by Dipterocarpus alatus trees, which were planted on bare land in 2003 and were inoculated with Amanita during 2004-2005. In 2014 eight edible mushroom species (total weight 72.6 kg) were found in the plot. Three Amanita spp. (60.2 kg, 83%) were the dominant group: red Amanita (Amanita cf. hemibapha; 43.2 kg, 59%), yellow Amanita (Amanita cf. hemibapha; 15.7 kg, 22%), and white Amanita (Amanita cf. princeps; 1.3 kg, 2%). These Amanita species morphologically resemble Amanita hemibapha, and A. princeps, but molecular data based on ITS and LSU show that they are taxonomically new to science, and are currently being described. Other inferior mushrooms found in the plot were Russula nigricans (8.1 kg), Termitomyces microcarpus (2.4 kg), Lactarius sp. (1.5 kg), and Russula emetica and Russula sp. (less than 1 kg). In 2015, two additional mushroom species, Russula virescens and Termitomyces sp., were also found, but the total yield of the plot was stable (72.1 kg). Yellow and white Amanita increased their yields (40 kg, 56% and 6.3 kg, 9%) but red Amanita sharply decreased (2.5 kg, 3%) resulting in decline of the total Amanita yield (48.8 kg, 68%). In 2016, nine edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms were found with the total yield 73.6 kg. Russula nigricans became the dominant species (38.4 kg, 52%) while the Amanita group (31.6 kg, 43%) decreased: yellow Amanita (25.9 kg, 35%), white Amanita (3.6 kg, 5%), and red Amanita (2.1 kg, 3%). In 2017, seven edible mushrooms were found with the total yield only 17.1 kg. Yellow Amanita became the dominant species (6.7 kg, 39%), red Amanita (4.5 kg, 26%), white Amanita (3.0 kg, 17%), while Russula nigricans decreased (0.8 kg, 5%). The presentation will show monthly yields of each mushroom species and some environmental factors throughout the last four years. Declining trend of the Amanita productivity, as well as possibility of rehabilitation in correlation of environmental factors, will be also discussed.
Mushroom poisonings in South China and study on the toxin genes of lethal Amanita
- W. Deng
- T. Li
Poisonous mushrooms are the main factor causing the fatal disasters in food poisoning incidents in China. According to the statistical data of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the numbers of deaths from mushroom poisonings were 25-55% of the total numbers of deaths from food poisonings from 2004 to 2014. South China is a high risk area for mushroom poisonings, the authors investigated and analyzed 113 mushroom poisoning cases in South China from 2000 to 2014, which involved 325 patients and 52 deaths, with an overall mortality of 16 %. About 200 poisonous mushrooms have been reported from South China. More than 50% poisoning cases were caused by Amanita exitialis Z.L. Yang & T. H. Li and Chlorophyllum molybdites (Meyer : Fr.) Mass., but all the poisoned deaths were caused by lethal Amanita. Cyclopeptides are the main fatal toxins in lethal Amanita, which encoded by MSDIN family. Based on the transcriptome and genome sequencing with Illumina HiSeq 2000, the author studied the toxin gene family and POPB involved in the toxin biosynthesis of the lethal Amanita from South China. The results showed that 70 different toxic gene family members were obtained from three lethal Amanita species, which encoded 3 toxic peptides (α-amanitin, β-amanitin and phallacidin) and 45 new unknown peptides. The research showed that lethal Amanita can produce abundant toxic peptides and related peptides, which will lay a strong foundation for the toxic peptide gene expression and exploitation of new cyclopeptide resources. This work was funded by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31470155 and 31670018).